The birth of synchrotron radiation research in the second half of the 20th century, using light emitted from electron accelerators, created a new field within the natural sciences, and was one of the revolutions acheived by mankind in light-related science and technology.

Synchrotron radiation offers unrivalled properties as a lightsource at wavelengths ranging from the infra-red to X-rays, and demonstrates its efficacy by being able to reveal the static structure, dynamic structural change, and electronic structure of almost any material. Research using synchrotron radiation began in earnest in the late 1970s. Since then, from machine physics to beamline use, the interdisciplinary field of synchrotron radiation science spans fields including the biological sciences, materials sciences, chemistry, earth sciences, environmental sciences, medicine, and nuclear physics. From basic to applied research, and to industrial use building on these results, synchrotron radiation research has established itself within all of the above fields, and also facilitates the development of new directions. There are currently many synchrotron lightsources in Japan, which are used by around 10,000 researchers. The basic research and planning for future lightsource projects is also under intense discussion.

The JSSRR was founded with the goal of promoting the current and future rapid development in synchrotron radiation science, by providing a forum for disseminating current research results and trends, the joint solving of academic and technical problems, and the interchange of ideas for developing new research directions.